Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan

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Table of Contents

  • Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2021

    Description:
    This graph shows hydrocarbon production in Saskatchewan from 2010 to 2020. Crude oil production has increased from 423 MMb/d to 435 MMb/d, after peaking at 558 MMb/d in 2014. Natural gas production has deceased from 0.50 Bcf/d to 0.35 Bcf/d.

  • Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2019)

    Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2019)

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2021

    Description:
    This pie chart shows electricity generation by source in Saskatchewan. A total of 24.2 TW.h of electricity was generated in 2019.

  • Figure 3: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Figure 3: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER

    Description:
    This map shows all major crude oil pipelines, rail lines, and refineries in Saskatchewan.

    Download:
    PDF version [865 KB]

  • Figure 4: Natural Gas Infrastructure Map

    Figure 4: Natural Gas Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER

    Description:
    This map shows all major natural gas pipelines in Saskatchewan.

    Download:
    PDF version [1 029 KB]

  • Figure 5: End-Use Demand by Sector (2019)

    Figure 5: End-Use Demand by Sector (2019)

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2021

    Description:
    This pie chart shows end-use energy demand in Saskatchewan by sector. Total end-use energy demand was 686 PJ in 2018. The largest sector was industrial at 57% of total demand, followed by transportation (at 22%), commercial (at 13%), and lastly, residential (at 8%).

  • Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2019)

    Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2019)

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2021

    Description:
    This figure shows end-use demand by fuel type in Saskatchewan in 2018. Natural gas accounted for 299 PJ (44%) of demand, followed by refined petroleum products at 284 PJ (41%), electricity at 87 PJ (13%), biofuels at 16 PJ (1%), and other at 0 PJ.
    Note: "Other" includes coal, coke, and coke oven gas.

  • Figure 7: GHG Emissions by Sector

    Figure 7: GHG Emissions by Sector

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    Environment and Climate Change Canada – National Inventory Report

    Description:
    This stacked column graph shows GHG emissions in Saskatchewan by sector every five years from 1990 to 2019 in MT of CO2e. Total GHG emissions have increased in Saskatchewan from 43 MT of CO2e in 1990 to 75 MT of CO2e in 2019.

  • Figure 8: Emissions Intensity from Electricity Generation

    Figure 8: Emissions Intensity from Electricity Generation

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    Environment and Climate Change Canada – National Inventory Report

    Description:
    This column graph shows the emissions intensity of electricity generation in Saskatchewan from 1990 to 2019. In 1990, electricity generated in Saskatchewan emitted 800 g of CO2e per kWh. By 2019, emissions intensity decreased to 600 g of CO2e per kWh.

Energy Production

Crude Oil

  • In 2020, Saskatchewan produced 487.2 thousand barrels per day (Mb/d) of crude oil (including condensate and pentanes plus) (Figure 1). Saskatchewan is the second largest crude oil producing province in Canada after Alberta, accounting for 10% of Canada’s crude oil production as of 2020.
  • Saskatchewan mainly produces heavy oil. In 2020, Saskatchewan produced 380.1 Mb/d of conventional heavy oil and 54.9 Mb/d of conventional light oil. Saskatchewan’s lighter crudes are produced primarily from tight wells.
  • Most of the growth in Saskatchewan’s oil production from 2010 to 2015 was from tight oil. Saskatchewan’s thermal heavy oil projects, which apply steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) methods to heavy oil fields primarily in the Lloydminster area, have also grown their production. There were 11 thermal heavy oil projects operating in Saskatchewan as of 2019.Footnote 1 There are also five new thermal bitumen projects in Saskatchewan with a combined nameplate capacity of 50 Mb/d that are being advanced through 2023.
  • Saskatchewan also has two commercial-scale carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (EOR) developments at Weyburn and Midale. The two projects inject almost three megatonnes of carbon dioxide annually.
  • Cenovus’s Lloydminster Upgrader converts heavy oil from Saskatchewan and Alberta to synthetic oil and produces some diesel fuel. The upgrader has a capacity to process about 80 Mb/d of heavy oil.
  • Saskatchewan’s remaining resource of crude oil is estimated to be 3.7 billion barrels as of December 2020.

Refined Petroleum Products (RPPs)

  • There are two refineries in Saskatchewan with a combined capacity of 157 Mb/d: FCL’s Co-op Refinery Complex in Regina and Gibson Energy’s Moose Jaw Refinery. Both refineries consume western Canadian crude oil.
  • The Co-op Refinery has a capacity of 135 Mb/d and produces a variety of RPPs, such as gasoline, diesel, and heavy fuel oil. The Co-op Refinery also has an upgrader to process heavy oil.
  • The Moose Jaw Refinery has a capacity of 22 Mb/d and produces a variety of products, as well as heavy end products, such as asphalt.
  • Saskatchewan produces a net surplus of RPPs. Some RPPs are transferred to Alberta and Manitoba, and small volumes are also exported to the United States (U.S.).

Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)

  • In 2020, Saskatchewan’s natural gas production averaged 354.2 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) (Figure 1). Saskatchewan’s gas production represented approximately 2% of total Canadian natural gas production in 2020.
  • Historically, most production came from natural gas wells in western Saskatchewan, but now an increasing amount is produced in southeast Saskatchewan as a byproduct of oil production (solution gas) from the Bakken formation. In 2020, more than half of all gas produced in Saskatchewan is a byproduct of oil production.
  • Saskatchewan’s total potential for recoverable, sales-quality gas is estimated to be 13.4 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), with 4.8 Tcf remaining at year-end 2020.
  • In 2020, Saskatchewan’s field production of NGLs was 7.6 Mb/d, not including condensate and pentanes plus, which are included with crude oil.

Electricity

  • In 2019, Saskatchewan generated 24.1 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity (Figure 2), which is approximately 4% of total Canadian generation. Saskatchewan has an estimated generating capacity of 4 560 megawatts (MW).
  • SaskPower generates the majority of electricity in Saskatchewan. Independent power producers account for approximately 18% of generation capacity and sell bulk power from gas, wind, and waste heat to SaskPower through power purchase agreements.
  • About 81% of electricity in Saskatchewan is produced from fossil fuels –approximately 40% from natural gas, 41% from coal, and a very small amount of petroleum in remote off-grid communities. The remaining 19% is produced from renewables, primarily hydroelectricity.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest power station is Boundary Dam. Located in Estevan, Boundary Dam has about 672 MW of coal-fired capacity. A portion of this capacity (110 MW) is fitted with carbon capture and storage capabilities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Saskatchewan has about 889 MW of hydroelectric capacity. The facilities are scattered across the province with some as far north as Lake Athabasca in northwest Saskatchewan.
  • Southern Saskatchewan has some of the highest solar photovoltaic potential in Canada, with Regina and Saskatoon receiving an average 7.15 and 7.10 kilowatt-hours per square metre (kWh/m2), respectively. SaskPower and Saturn Power’s 10 MW Highfield Solar Project located near Swift Current is the province’s first utility scale solar generation project. The project began operating in October 2021 and can generate enough renewable power for about 2 500 homes.
  • Southern Saskatchewan also has some of the highest wind energy potential in Canada. In 2020, the province had six wind farms in operation with an aggregated net capacity of 241 MW.
  • Two large-scale wind energy projects became operational in 2021, including the 200 MW Golden South Wind Project and the 175 MW Blue Hill Wind Project.
  • Three separate 10 MW solar projects are currently underway. SaskPower has entered into power purchase agreements with the First Nations Power Authority for two 10 MW projects expected to be in service in 2022: the Pesâkâstêw Solar Energy Facility, which is a partnership between George Gordon First Nation, Star Blanket Cree Nation and Natural Forces; and the Awasis Solar Energy Facility, which is a partnership between Cowessess First Nation and Elemental Energy. The third 10 MW solar project, Kruger Energy Saskatchewan Solar's Foxtail Grove Solar Energy Facility, is expected to be complete in 2023.
  • There are two other major wind energy projects currently under construction. The 200 MW Bekevar Wind Energy Project is expected to start construction in summer 2022 and be completed in 2023. Bekevar is a partnership between United Kingdom-based Renewable Energy Systems and the Cowessess First Nation. In addition, the 200 MW Spring Lake Wind Project is set to become operational in 2024.
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Energy Transportation and Trade

Crude Oil and Liquids

  • The Enbridge Mainline and TC Energy’s Keystone pipeline, which ship western Canadian crude oil and liquids to the U.S. and eastern Canadian markets, enter Saskatchewan at the Alberta border and flow eastward to Manitoba and eventually to the U.S. (Figure 3).
  • The Enbridge Mainline has two terminals in Saskatchewan. At the Kerrobert terminal, Enbridge receives crude oil from gathering systems as well as natural gas liquids from Pembina’s Kerrobert pipeline. At the Regina terminal, Enbridge receives crude oil from Plains Midstream’s Wascana and South Saskatchewan pipelines, and delivers crude oil to the Co-op Refinery Complex.
  • The Saskatchewan Pipeline transports RPPs from an Enbridge Mainline delivery point at Milden to terminals in Saskatoon.
  • Enbridge’s Bakken and Kingston Midstream’s Westspur (formerly TEML Westpur Pipelines) pipelines transport crude oil produced in southeastern Saskatchewan and North Dakota to the Enbridge Mainline terminal at Cromer, Manitoba. The Enbridge Bakken line has a capacity of 145 Mb/d while Westspur has a capacity of 247 Mb/d.
  • The Cochin Pipeline imports condensate from the U.S., entering Saskatchewan at Elmore and delivering condensate westward to Fort Saskatchewan in northern Alberta. Pembina acquired the Cochin Pipeline from Kinder Morgan in December 2019.
  • Saskatchewan has 14 crude oil rail loading facilities.

Natural Gas

  • TC Energy's Canadian Mainline extends from the Alberta/Saskatchewan border across Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and through a portion of Quebec. The Mainline transports western Canadian gas to markets in the Prairies, central Canada, and the U.S. (Figure 4).
  • The Foothills SK pipeline system is connected to the Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. system in Alberta and exports natural gas to markets in the U.S. Midwest via the Monchy, Saskatchewan, export point.
  • SaskEnergy distributes natural gas to nearly 400 000 residential, farm, industrial, and commercial customers. SaskEnergy’s 71 000 kilometre (km) distribution system transports natural gas to over 93% of communities across Saskatchewan.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

  • There are no existing or proposed LNG facilities in Saskatchewan.

Electricity

  • In 2019, Saskatchewan’s net interprovincial and international electricity inflows were 0.02 TWh. Saskatchewan trades primarily with Alberta, Manitoba, and North Dakota.
  • SaskPower is the transmission and distribution company for the province, operating over a 652 000 square km service area. SaskPower has more than 157 500 km of electricity transmission and distribution lines.
  • SaskPower and Manitoba Hydro recently completed a new 230 kilovolt transmission line (The Birtle Transmission Project) that will increase interprovincial transfers of renewable-sourced power from Manitoba to Saskatchewan, under new long-term power agreements.
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Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Total Energy Consumption

  • End-use demand in Saskatchewan was 686 petajoules (PJ) in 2019. The largest sector for energy demand was industrial at 58% of total demand, followed by transportation at 22%, commercial at 12%, and residential at 8% (Figure 5). Saskatchewan’s total energy demand was the sixth largest in Canada, and the second largest on a per capita basis.
  • Natural gas was the largest fuel type consumed in Saskatchewan, accounting for 298 PJ, or 43% of total end-use demand. RPPs and electricity accounted for 283 PJ (41%) and 86 PJ (12%), respectively (Figure 6).

Refined Petroleum Products

  • Saskatchewan’s motor gasoline demand in 2019 was 2 302 litres per capita, 82% above the national average of 1 268 litres per capita.
  • Saskatchewan’s diesel demand in 2019 was 3 020 litres per capita, more than three times the national average of 855 litres per capita.
  • While Saskatchewan produces enough gasoline to meet its needs, due to logistics and business arrangements, the province also imports gasoline and other RPPs from Alberta. Gasoline and other RPPs produced in Saskatchewan are also exported to neighbouring provinces.

Natural Gas

  • Saskatchewan consumed an average of 596 MMcf/d of natural gas in 2020. Saskatchewan's demand represents 5% of total Canadian demand.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest consuming sector for natural gas was the industrial sector, which consumed 415 MMcf/d in 2020. The residential and commercial sectors consumed 100 MMcf/d and 81.5 MMcf/d, respectively.

Electricity

  • In 2019, annual electricity consumption per capita in Saskatchewan was 20.2 megawatt-hours (MWh). Saskatchewan ranked second in Canada for per capita electricity consumption and consumed 35% more than the national average.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest consuming sector for electricity in 2019 was industrial at 13 TWh. The commercial and residential sectors consumed 7.1 TWh and 3.6 TWh, respectively.

GHG Emissions

  • Saskatchewan’s GHG emissions in 2019 were 74.8 MT of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).Footnote 2 Saskatchewan’s emissions have increased 73% since 1990 and 10% since 2005.
  • Saskatchewan’s emissions per capita are the highest in Canada at 63.8 tonnes of CO2e, 228% above the national average of 19.4 tonnes per capita.
  • The largest emitting sectors in Saskatchewan are oil and gas production at 27% of emissions, agriculture at 25%, and electricity generation at 20% (Figure 7).
  • Saskatchewan’s GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector in 2019 were 20.1 MT CO2e. Of this total, 18.6 MT were attributable to production, processing, and transmission and 1.5 MT were attributable to petroleum refining and natural gas distribution.
  • Saskatchewan’s electricity sector produces the second highest amount of GHG emissions in Canada after Alberta, primarily because of its reliance on coal-fired generation. In 2019, Saskatchewan’s power sector emitted 14.7 MT CO2e emissions, or 24% of total Canadian GHG emissions from power generation.
  • In 2014, 139 MW of coal-fired capacity at the Boundary Dam station was retrofitted with carbon capture and storage technology that is capable of capturing and storing up to 1.0 MT CO2 per year of emissions that would have otherwise be released. In 2020, over 0.7 MT were captured, and over 4.0 MT have been captured since start up.
  • The greenhouse gas intensity of Saskatchewan’s electricity grid, measured as the GHGs emitted in the generation of the province’s electric power, was 660 grams of CO2e per kilowatt-hour (g of CO2e/kWh) electricity generated in 2019. This is a 15% reduction from the province’s 2005 level of 780 g of CO2e/kWh. The national average in 2019 was 120 g of CO2e/kWh (Figure 8).
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More Information

Data Sources

Provincial & Territorial Energy Profiles aligns with the CER’s latest Canada’s Energy Future 2021 datasets. Energy Futures uses a variety of data sources, generally starting with Statistics Canada data as the foundation, and making adjustments to ensure consistency across all provinces and territories.

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