Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan

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Table of Contents
  • Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2019

    Description:
    This graph shows hydrocarbon production in Saskatchewan from 2008 to 2018. Crude oil production has increased from 440.0 Mb/d to 489.2 Mb/d, after peaking at 557.6 Mb/d in 2014. Natural gas production has decreased from 0.6 Bcf/d to 0.4 Bcf/d.

  • Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2018)

    Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2018)

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2019

    Description:
    This pie chart shows electricity generation by source in Saskatchewan. A total of 24.3 TW.h of electricity was generated in 2018.

  • Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map

    Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER, Natural Resources Canada

    Description:
    This map shows electricity generation facilities in Saskatchewan. Facilities are shown by capacity and by primary fuel source.

    Download:
    PDF version [1364 KB]

  • Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER

    Description:
    This map shows all major crude oil pipelines, rail lines, and refineries in Saskatchewan.

    Download:
    PDF version [1170 KB]

  • Figure 5: Natural Gas Infrastructure Map

    Figure 5: Natural Gas Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER

    Description:
    This map shows all major natural gas pipelines in Saskatchewan.

    Download:
    PDF version [399 KB]

  • Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Sector (2017)

    Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Sector (2017)

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2019

    Description:
    This pie chart shows end-use energy demand in Saskatchewan by sector. Total end-use energy demand was 682 PJ in 2017. The largest sector was industrial at 59% of total demand, followed by transportation (at 20%), commercial (at 14%), and lastly, residential (at 8%).

  • Figure 7: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2017)

    Figure 7: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2017)

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    CER – Canada's Energy Future 2019

    Description:
    This figure shows end-use demand by fuel type in Saskatchewan in 2017. Natural gas accounted for 322 PJ (47%) of demand, followed by refined petroleum products at 268 PJ (39%), electricity at 83 PJ (12%), biofuels at 10 PJ (1%), and other at 0 PJ.
    Note: "Other" includes coal, coke, and coke oven gas.

  • Figure 8: GHG Emissions by Sector

    Figure 8: GHG Emissions by sector

    Source and Description:

    Source:
    Environment and Climate Change Canada – National Inventory Report

    Description:
    This stacked column graph shows GHG emissions in Saskatchewan by sector every five years from 1990 to 2017 in MT of CO2e. Total GHG emissions have increased in Saskatchewan from 44.4 MT of CO2e in 1990 to 77.9 MT of CO2e in 2017.

Energy Production

Crude Oil

  • In 2018, Saskatchewan produced 489 thousand barrels per day (Mb/d) of crude oil (including condensate and pentanes plus) (Figure 1). Saskatchewan is the 2nd largest crude oil producing province in Canada after Alberta, accounting for 10% of Canada’s crude oil production.
  • Saskatchewan produces primarily heavy oil. In 2018, Saskatchewan produced 432 Mb/d of heavy oil, 57 Mb/d of light oil, and 0.6 Mb/d of condensate/pentanes plus.
  • Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador are the only provinces that produce heavy crude oil. Most of Saskatchewan’s heavy production is being produced using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques including steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) methods, primarily in the Lloydminster area. Saskatchewan also has two commercial scale carbon dioxide EOR developments at Weyburn and Midale.
  • Saskatchewan’s lighter crudes are produced from conventional or tight wells.
  • Husky’s Lloydminster Upgrader converts heavy oil from Saskatchewan and Alberta to synthetic oil and produces some diesel fuel. The upgrader has a capacity to process about 80 Mb/d of heavy oil.
  • Saskatchewan’s remaining resource of crude oil is estimated to be 4.0 billion barrels when production to year-end 2018 is subtracted.

Refined Petroleum Products (RPPs)

  • There are two refineries in Saskatchewan with a combined capacity of 152 Mb/d: FCL’s Co-op Refinery Complex in Regina and Gibson Energy’s Moose Jaw Refinery. Both refineries consume western Canadian crude oil.
  • Co-op Refinery Complex has a capacity of 130 Mb/d and produces a variety of RPPs, such as gasoline, diesel, and heavy fuel oil. The Co-op Refinery Complex also includes an upgrader to allow it to process heavy oil.
  • Moose Jaw Refinery has a capacity of 22 Mb/d and produces primarily asphalt.
  • Saskatchewan produces a net surplus of RPPs. Some RPPs are transferred to Alberta and Manitoba, and small volumes are also exported to the United States (U.S.).

Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)

  • In 2018, Saskatchewan’s natural gas production available for sale averaged 396 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) (Figure 1). Saskatchewan’s gas production represented approximately 2% of total Canadian natural gas production in 2018.
  • Historically, most gas production came from gas wells in western Saskatchewan, but an increasing amount is now produced in southeast Saskatchewan, as a byproduct of oil production from the Bakken and other tight oil formations. Today most natural gas produced in Saskatchewan is a byproduct of oil production.
  • Saskatchewan’s total potential for recoverable, sales-quality gas is estimated to be 13.4 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), with 5.5 Tcf remaining at year-end 2018.
  • In 2018, Saskatchewan’s NGL production was about 8.6 Mb/d, not including condensate and pentanes plus, which are included with crude oil.

Electricity

  • In 2018, Saskatchewan generated 24.3 terawatt hours (TW.h) of electricity (Figure 2), which is approximately 4% of total Canadian generation. Saskatchewan has a generating capacity of 4 533 megawatts (MW).
  • SaskPower generates the majority of electricity in Saskatchewan. Independent power producers account for approximately 20% of generation capacity.
  • About 83% of electricity in Saskatchewan is produced from fossil fuels - approximately 43% from natural gas, 40% from coal, and a very small fraction of petroleum used in remote off-grid communities. The remaining 17% is produced from renewables, primarily hydroelectricity (Figure 3).
  • Boundary Dam in Estevan is Saskatchewan’s largest power station, with about 672 MW of coal-fired capacity. A portion of this capacity has been retrofitted with carbon capture and storage capabilities.
  • Saskatchewan has about 889 MW of hydroelectric capacity. The facilities are scattered across the province with some as far north as Lake Athabasca in northwest Saskatchewan.
  • Southern Saskatchewan has some of the highest solar photovoltaic potential in Canada, with Regina and Saskatoon receiving an average 7.15 kilowatt hours per square metre (kW.h/m2) and 7.1 kW.h/m2, respectively. The 10 MW Highfield Solar Project near Swift Current will be the province’s first utility-scale solar generation project and it is expected to be in operation in 2021. This project is being developed by an independent company, Saturn Power.
  • Southern Saskatchewan also has some of the highest wind energy potential in Canada. The province has 6 wind farms in operation with an aggregated capacity of 241 MW. The 150 MW Centennial Wind Power Facility near Swift Current is the largest wind power facility in the province.
  • Multiple large-scale wind energy projects were announced in 2018, including the 200 MW Golden South Wind Energy (GSWE), the 177 MW Blue Hill Wind Project, and the 200 MW Spring Lake Wind Project. GSWE started construction near Assiniboia in August 2019, with an expected in-service date in 2021.

Energy Transportation and Trade

Crude Oil and Liquids

  • Enbridge’s Mainline and TC Energy’s Keystone pipelines, which ship western Canadian crude oil and liquids to U.S. and eastern Canadian markets, enter Saskatchewan at the Alberta border and flow eastward to Manitoba and eventually to the U.S. (Figure 4).
  • The Enbridge Mainline has two terminals in Saskatchewan. At the Kerrobert terminal, Enbridge receives crude oil from gathering systems as well as natural gas liquids from Pembina’s Kerrobert pipeline. At the Regina terminal, Enbridge receives crude oil from the Plains Midstream’s Wascana and South Saskatchewan pipelines, and also delivers crude oil to the Co-op Refinery Complex.
  • The Saskatchewan Pipeline transports RPPs from the Enbridge Mainline at Milden, Saskatchewan to terminals in Saskatoon.
  • Enbridge’s Bakken and Kingston Midstream’s (formerly Tundra Energy Marketing) Westspur pipelines gather crude oil from southeastern Saskatchewan and the U.S. for shipment to the Enbridge Mainline terminal at Cromer, Manitoba. The Enbridge Bakken line has a capacity of 145 Mb/d while Westspur has a capacity of 247 Mb/d.
  • The Cochin Pipeline imports condensate from the U.S., entering Saskatchewan at Elmore, and delivering condensate westward to Fort Saskatchewan in northern Alberta. Pembina acquired the Cochin Pipeline from Kinder Morgan in December 2019.
  • Saskatchewan has 14 crude oil rail loading facilities. In 2018, approximately 7% of Saskatchewan’s crude oil production was delivered to markets by rail.

Natural Gas

  • TC Energy’s Canadian Mainline extends from the Alberta/Saskatchewan border near Empress, Alberta to the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border at Welwyn. The Mainline transports western Canadian gas to markets in the Prairies, central Canada, and the U.S. before terminating at the Ontario/Quebec border (Figure 5).
  • The Foothills SK pipeline system is connected to the Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. system in Alberta and exports natural gas to markets in the U.S. Midwest via the Monchy, Saskatchewan export point.
  • SaskEnergy distributes natural gas to over 390 000 residential, farm, industrial, and commercial customers. SaskEnergy’s 68 500 kilometre (km) pipeline system transports natural gas to over 93% of communities across Saskatchewan.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

  • There are no existing or proposed LNG facilities in Saskatchewan.

Electricity

  • In 2018, Saskatchewan’s net interprovincial and international electricity inflows were 0.1 TW.h. Saskatchewan trades primarily with Montana, Alberta, and North Dakota.
  • SaskPower’s subsidiary NorthPoint Energy Solutions (NorthPoint) manages the province’s imports and exports; Northpoint imports when the acquisition price is lower than the cost to generate internally, and exports when any surplus electricity can be sold at a profit.
  • SaskPower is the transmission and distribution company for the province, operating over a
    652 000 square km service area. SaskPower has more than 157 000 km of electricity transmission and distribution lines.
  • SaskPower and Manitoba Hydro are constructing a new 230 kilovolt transmission line (the Birtle to Tantallon Transmission Project). The new line will increase interprovincial transfers by an additional 100 MW and bring renewable-sourced power from Manitoba to Saskatchewan. SaskPower has nearly completed construction of its portion, while Manitoba Hydro plans to begin construction in early 2020.
  • SaskPower and Manitoba Hydro announced a long-term power agreement beginning in 2022, where Manitoba Hydro will supply up to an additional 215 MW of hydroelectricity to Saskatchewan utilizing the new Birtle to Tantallon Transmission line. SaskPower already has two existing purchase agreements with Manitoba Hydro, including a 20-year 100 MW contract that takes effect in 2020.

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Total Energy Consumption

  • End-use demand in Saskatchewan was 682 petajoules (PJ) in 2017. The largest sector for energy demand was industrial at 59% of total demand, followed by transportation at 20%, commercial at 14%, and residential at 8% (Figure 6). Saskatchewan’s total energy demand was the 5th largest in Canada, and the 2nd largest on a per capita basis.
  • Natural gas was the largest fuel type consumed in Saskatchewan, accounting for 322 PJ, or 47%. RPPs and electricity accounted for 268 PJ (39%) and 83 PJ (12%), respectively (Figure 7).

Refined Petroleum Products

  • While Saskatchewan produces enough gasoline to meet its needs, due to logistics and business arrangements, the province also imports gasoline and other RPPs from neighbouring provinces such as Alberta. Gasoline and other RPPs produced in Saskatchewan are also exported to neighbouring provinces.
  • Total 2018 demand in Saskatchewan for RPPs was 129 Mb/d, or 7% of total Canadian RPP demand. Of Saskatchewan’s total demand, 47 Mb/d was for motor gasoline and 64 Mb/d was for diesel.
  • Saskatchewan’s per capita RPP consumption in 2018 was 6 548 litres (41 barrels), or 116% above the national average of 3 038 litres per capita.

Natural Gas

  • Saskatchewan consumed an average of 684 MMcf/d of natural gas in 2018. Saskatchewan's demand represents 6% of total Canadian demand for natural gas.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest consuming sector for natural gas was the industrial sector, which consumed 504 MMcf/d in 2018. The residential and commercial sectors consumed 100 MMcf/d and 80 MMcf/d, respectively.

Electricity

  • In 2017, annual electricity consumption per capita in Saskatchewan was 20 megawatt hours (MW.h). Saskatchewan ranked 2nd in Canada for per capita electricity consumption and consumed 37% more than the national average.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest consuming sector for electricity in 2017 was industrial at 12.4 TW.h. The commercial and residential sectors consumed 7.1 TW.h and 3.5 TW.h, respectively. Saskatchewan’s electricity demand has grown 43% since 2005.
  • In 2014, 120 MW of coal-fired capacity at the Boundary Dam station was retrofitted with carbon capture and storage technology that is capable of capturing and storing up to one megatonne (MT) per year of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that would have otherwise be released. In 2018, 625 966 tonnes were captured.

GHG Emissions

  • Saskatchewan’s GHG emissions in 2017 were 77.9 MT of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)Footnote 1. Saskatchewan’s emissions have increased 75% since 1990.
  • Saskatchewan’s emissions per capita are the highest in Canada at 67.7 tonnes of CO2e – 246% above the national average of 19.6 tonnes per capita.
  • The largest emitting sectors in Saskatchewan are oil and gas production at 33% of emissions, agriculture at 23%, and electricity generation at 20% (Figure 8).
  • Saskatchewan’s GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector in 2017 were 25.3 MT CO2e. Of this total, 23.7 MT were attributable to production, processing, and transmission and 1.6 MT were attributable to petroleum refining and natural gas distribution.
  • Saskatchewan’s electricity sector produces the second highest amount of GHG emissions after Alberta, primarily because of its reliance on coal-fired generation. In 2017, Saskatchewan’s power sector emitted 15.5 MT CO2e emissions, or 21% of total Canadian GHG emissions from power generation.

More Information

Data Sources

Provincial & Territorial Energy Profiles aligns with CER’s latest Canada’s Energy Future 2019 datasets. Energy Future uses a variety of data sources, generally starting with Statistics Canada data as the foundation, and making adjustments depending on individual province/territory circumstances.  Adjustments are necessary to ensure consistency and comparability across provinces/territories.

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