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Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Saskatchewan

Table of Contents
  • Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production

    Source and Description:

    NEB – Canada's Energy Future 2018


    This graph shows hydrocarbon production in Saskatchewan from 2007 to 2017. Crude oil production has increased from 428.2 MMb/d to 487.4 MMb/d, after peaking at 558 MMb/d in 2014. Natural gas production has deceased from 0.7 Bcf/d to 0.4 Bcf/d.

  • Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2017)

    Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2017)

    Source and Description:

    Statistics Canada (Tables 25-10-0020-01 and 25-10-0019-01), NEB Estimates

    This pie chart shows electricity generation by source in Saskatchewan. A total of 25.5 TW.h of electricity was generated in 2017.

  • Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map

    Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map

    Source and Description:

    NEB, Natural Resources Canada

    This map shows electricity generation facilities in Saskatchewan. Facilities are shown by capacity and by primary fuel source.

    PDF version [1364 KB]

  • Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:


    This map shows all major crude oil pipelines, rail lines, and refineries in Saskatchewan.

    PDF version [433 KB]

  • Figure 5: Natural Gas Infrastructure Map

    Figure 5: Natural Gas Infrastructure Map

    Source and Description:


    This map shows all major natural gas pipelines in Saskatchewan.

    PDF version [392 KB]

  • Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Sector (2016)

    Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Sector (2016)

    Source and Description:

    NEB – Canada's Energy Future 2018

    This pie chart shows end-use energy demand in Saskatchewan by sector. Total end-use energy demand was 660 PJ in 2016. The largest sector was industrial at 58% of total demand, followed by transportation (at 21%), commercial (at 14%), and lastly, residential (at 7%).

  • Figure 7: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2016)

    Figure 7: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2016)

    Source and Description:

    NEB – Canada's Energy Future 2018

    This figure shows end-use demand by fuel type in Saskatchewan in 2016. Natural gas accounted for 305 PJ (46%) of demand, followed by refined petroleum products at 268 PJ (41%), electricity at 79 PJ (12%), biofuels at 7 PJ (1%), and other at 0 PJ.

    Note: "Other" includes coal, coke, and coke oven gas.

  • Figure 8: GHG Emissions by Sector

    Figure 8: GHG Emissions by sector

    Source and Description:

    Environment and Climate Change Canada – National Inventory Report

    This stacked column graph shows GHG emissions in Saskatchewan by sector every five  years from 1990 to 2016 in MT of CO2e. Total GHG emissions have increased in Saskatchewan from 45 MT of CO2e in 1990 to 76 MT of CO2e in 2016.

Energy Production

Crude Oil

  • In 2017, Saskatchewan produced 485.4 thousand barrels per day (Mb/d) of crude oil (light, heavy, and condensate combined) (Figure 1).
  • Saskatchewan produces 11% of total Canadian crude oil production and is the 2nd largest crude oil producing province in Canada after Alberta.
  • Saskatchewan and Alberta are the only provinces that produce heavy crude oil. Most of Saskatchewan’s heavy production is from conventional or tight wells. An increasing amount of heavy oil production is the result of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), primarily in the Lloydminster area.
  • Husky’s Lloydminster Upgrader converts heavy oil from Saskatchewan and Alberta to synthetic oil and produces some quantities of diesel fuel. The upgrader has a capacity of 80 Mb/d.

Refined Petroleum Products (RPPs)

  • There are two refineries in Saskatchewan with a combined capacity of 154 Mb/d.
  • The Co-Op Refinery in Regina produces a variety of RPPs, such as gasoline, diesel, and heavy fuel oil, while the Gibsons Refinery in Moose Jaw produces primarily asphalt. Both refineries consume western Canadian crude oil.
  • Saskatchewan produces a net surplus of RPPs. Some RPPs are transferred to Alberta and Manitoba, and small volumes are also exported to the United States (U.S.).

Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)

  • In 2017, natural gas production in Saskatchewan averaged 401 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) (Figure 1). Saskatchewan’s gas production represented approximately 3% of total Canadian natural gas production in 2017.
  • Most natural gas produced in Saskatchewan is a byproduct of oil production. Historically, most gas production came from southwest Saskatchewan, but an increasing amount is now produced in the southeast, where the Bakken and other tight oil formations are being developed.
  • Saskatchewan’s marketable natural gas resources are estimated by the NEB to be 13.4 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), with 5.1 Tcf remaining at year-end 2017.
  • In 2017, field production of NGLs was 25 Mb/d. Saskatchewan’s NGL production represents about 3% of total Canadian NGL production. Small volumes of propane and butane are also produced at Saskatchewan’s refineries.

Electricity and Renewables

  • In 2017, Saskatchewan generated 25.5 terawatt hours (TW.h) of electricity (Figure 2), which is approximately 4% of total Canadian generation. Saskatchewan has a generating capacity of 4 533 megawatts (MW).
  • SaskPower generates the majority of electricity in Saskatchewan. Independent power producers account for approximately 20% of generation capacity.
  • About 84% of electricity in Saskatchewan is produced from fossil fuels – approximately 49% from coal, 35% from natural gas and a very small fraction of petroleum used in remote off-grid communities. The remaining 16% is produced from renewables, primarily hydroelectricity (Figure 3).
  • Boundary Dam is Saskatchewan’s largest power station, with about 672 MW of coal-fired capacity. A portion of this capacity has been retrofitted with carbon capture and storage capabilities.
  • Saskatchewan has about 890 MW of hydroelectric capacity. The facilities are scattered across the province with some as far north as Lake Athabasca in northwest Saskatchewan.
  • Southern Saskatchewan has some of the highest solar photovoltaic potential in Canada, with Regina and Saskatoon receiving an average 7.15 kilowatt hours per square metre (kW.h/m²) and 7.1 kW.h/m², respectively. The 10 MW Highland Solar Project, located near Swift Current, is expected to be in operation in 2019.
  • Southern Saskatchewan also has some of the highest wind energy potential in Canada. Multiple large-scale wind energy projects were announced and approved in 2018, including the 200 MW Golden South Wind Energy, the 177 MW Blue Hill Wind Project, and the 200 MW Spring Lake Wind Project.

Energy Transportation and Trade

Crude Oil and Liquids

  • The Enbridge Mainline and TransCanada Keystone pipelines, which ship western Canadian crude oil and liquids to U.S. and eastern markets, enter Saskatchewan at the Alberta border and flow eastward to Manitoba and eventually to the U.S (Figure 4).
  • The Enbridge Mainline has two terminals in Saskatchewan. At the Kerrobert terminal, Enbridge receives crude oil from gathering systems as well as natural gas liquids from Pembina’s Kerrobert pipeline. At the Regina terminal, Enbridge receives crude oil from the Plains Midstream Wascana and South Saskatchewan pipelines, and also delivers crude oil to the Regina refinery.
  • The Enbridge Bakken and Tundra Energy Marketing Westspur pipelines gather crude oil from southeastern Saskatchewan and the U.S. for shipment to the Enbridge Mainline terminal at Cromer, Manitoba.
  • Kinder Morgan’s Cochin Pipeline enters Manitoba at the U.S. border and delivers condensate westward to Alberta.
  • Saskatchewan has 13 crude oil rail loading facilities with a total capacity 381 Mb/d. In 2017, approximately 3% of Saskatchewan’s crude oil production was delivered to markets by rail.

Natural Gas

  • The TransCanada Mainline extends from the Alberta/Saskatchewan border near Empress, Alberta to the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border at Welwyn. The Mainline transports western Canadian gas to markets in the Prairies, central Canada, and the U.S. before terminating at the Ontario/Quebec border (Figure 5).
  • The Foothills SK pipeline system is connected to the Nova Gas Transmission Ltd. system in Alberta and exports natural gas to markets in the U.S. Midwest via the Monchy, Saskatchewan export point.
  • SaskEnergy distributes natural gas to over 390 000 residential, farm, industrial, and commercial customers. SaskEnergy’s 68 500 kilometre (km) pipeline system transports natural gas to over 93% of communities across Saskatchewan.

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

  • There are no existing or proposed LNG facilities in Saskatchewan, although LNG and compressed natural gas is being trucked in to some communities northeast of Saskatoon for peak demand service during the winter.


  • In 2017, Saskatchewan’s net interprovincial and international electricity outflows were 0.1 TW.h. Saskatchewan trades primarily with Montana, Alberta, and North Dakota.
  • SaskPower has more than 157 000 km of electricity transmission and distribution lines.
  • Manitoba Hydro has plans to construct a new 230 kV transmission line (the Birtle Transmission Project) between Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The new line would increase interprovincial transfers by an additional 100 MW.

Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions

Total Energy Consumption

  • End-use demand in Saskatchewan was 660 petajoules (PJ) in 2016. The largest sector for energy demand was industrial at 58% of total demand, followed by transportation at 21%, commercial at 14%, and residential at 7% (Figure 6). Saskatchewan’s total energy demand was the 4th largest in Canada, and the 1st largest on a per capita basis.
  • Natural gas was the largest fuel type consumed in Saskatchewan, accounting for 305 PJ, or 46%. RPPs and electricity accounted for 268 PJ (41%) and 79 PJ (12%), respectively (Figure 7).

Refined Petroleum Products

  • All of the gasoline consumed in Saskatchewan is refined within the province.
  • Total 2016 demand in Saskatchewan for RPPs was 128 Mb/d, or 7% of total Canadian RPP demand. Of Saskatchewan’s total demand, 49 Mb/d was for motor gasoline and 70 Mb/d was for diesel.
  • Saskatchewan’s per capita RPP consumption in 2017 was 6 374 litres (40.1 barrels), or 121% above the national average of 2 886 litres per capita.

Natural Gas

  • Saskatchewan consumed an average of 720 MMcf/d of natural gas in 2017. Saskatchewan's demand represents 8% of total Canadian demand for natural gas.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest consuming sector for natural gas was the industrial sector, which consumed 554 MMcf/d in 2017. The residential and commercial sectors consumed 92 MMcf/d and 74 MMcf/d, respectively.


  • In 2016, annual electricity consumption per capita in Saskatchewan was 20.0 megawatt hours (MW.h). Saskatchewan ranked 2nd in Canada for per capita electricity consumption and consumed 34% more than the national average.
  • Saskatchewan’s largest consuming sector for electricity in 2016 was industrial at 11.7 TW.h. The commercial and residential sectors consumed 6.8 TW.h and 3.5 TW.h, respectively. Saskatchewan’s electricity demand has grown 28% since 2005.
  • In 2014, 120 MW of capacity at the Boundary Dam station were retrofitted with carbon capture and storage technology that is capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by one megatonne (MT) per year.

GHG Emissions

  • Saskatchewan’s GHG emissions in 2016 were 76.3 MT of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).Footnote 1 Saskatchewan’s emissions have increased 71% since 1990.
  • Saskatchewan’s emissions per capita are the highest in Canada at 66.9 tonnes of CO2e – 244% above the national average of 19.4 tonnes per capita.
  • The largest emitting sectors in Saskatchewan are oil and gas production at 33% of emissions, agriculture at 23%, and electricity generation at 20% (Figure 8).
  • Saskatchewan’s GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector in 2016 were 25.0 MT CO2e. Of this total, 22.8 MT were attributable to production, processing, and transmission and 2.2 MT were attributable to petroleum refining and natural gas distribution.
  • Saskatchewan’s electricity sector produces the second highest amount of GHG emissions after Alberta, primarily because of its reliance on coal-fired generation. In 2016, Saskatchewan’s power sector emitted 15.0 MT CO2e emissions, or 19% of total Canadian GHG emissions from power generation.

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