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Provincial and Territorial Energy Profiles – Newfoundland and Labrador
Figure 1: Hydrocarbon Production
Source and Description:
This graph shows hydrocarbon production in Newfoundland and Labrador from 2007 to 2017. Over this period, crude oil production has decreased from 368 Mb/d to 221 Mb/d.
Figure 2: Electricity Generation by Fuel Type (2017)
Figure 3: Electricity Capacity and Primary Fuel Sources Map
Source and Description:
NEB, Natural Resources Canada
This map shows electricity generation facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. Facilities are shown by capacity and by primary fuel source.
PDF version [1746 KB]
Figure 4: Crude Oil Infrastructure Map
Source and Description:
This map shows all refineries and offshore crude oil platforms in Newfoundland and Labrador, and crude oil infrastructure in Atlantic Canada.
PDF version [454 KB]
Figure 5: End-Use Demand by Sector (2016)
Source and Description:
This pie chart shows end-use energy demand in Newfoundland and Labrador by sector. Total end-use energy demand was 166 PJ in 2016. The largest sector was industrial at 40% of total demand, followed by transportation (at 38%), residential (at 15%), and lastly, commercial (at 7%).
Figure 6: End-Use Demand by Fuel (2016)
Source and Description:
This figure shows end-use demand by fuel type in Newfoundland and Labrador in 2016. Refined petroleum products accounted for 102 PJ (62%) of demand, followed by electricity at 37 PJ (22%), natural gas at 20 PJ (12%), biofuels at 7 PJ (4%), and other at 0 PJ.
Note: "Other" includes coal, coke, and coke oven gas.
Figure 7: GHG Emissions by Sector
Source and Description:
This stacked column graph shows GHG emissions in Newfoundland and Labrador by sector every five years from 1990 to 2016 in MT of CO2e. Total GHG emissions have increased in Newfoundland and Labrador from 9.3 MT of CO2e in 1990 to 10.8 MT of CO2e in 2016.
- In 2017, Newfoundland and Labrador’s oil production was 220.8 thousand barrels per day (Mb/d), or 6% of Canada’s overall production (Figure 1). Production, which is all offshore, had steadily decreased between 2007 and 2015, but increased in 2016 and 2017 because of higher production at the Hibernia oil platform.
- Newfoundland and Labrador is the largest producer of crude oil in eastern Canada, and is the 3rd largest oil producing province in Canada after Alberta and Saskatchewan.
- Some new oil discoveries have been made in the offshore of Newfoundland and Labrador in recent years by Equinor, which estimates that 300 million barrels of oil might be recoverable in the Flemish Pass Basin. Equinor is also responsible for the Bay de Verde and Baccalieu discoveries in 2016. Both discoveries require further appraisal by Equinor.
- ExxonMobil’s Hebron oil platform produced first oil on 27 November 2017. The platform is capable of producing up to 150 000 barrels per day.
- In 2017, Husky announced that it is moving forward with its West White Rose project. Construction of the gravity-based structure is underway and production is expected in 2022.
Refined Petroleum Products (RPPs)
- The North Atlantic Refinery in Come-by-Chance is the only refinery in Newfoundland and Labrador. It has a capacity of 115 Mb/d. The refinery consumes a mix of eastern Canadian production and offshore imports.
- Newfoundland and Labrador has a net surplus of RPPs and exports a significant amount of its production to the United States (U.S.) East Coast market.
Natural Gas/Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
- In 2017, 523 million cubic feet per day (MMcf/d) of natural gas was produced at offshore Newfoundland crude oil facilities. All natural gas was used for power at the offshore facilities, reinjected into the ground to maintain reservoir pressure, or flared.
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s marketable natural gas resource is estimated by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador at 12.6 trillion cubic feet.
- There is no field production of NGLs in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Electricity and Renewables
- In 2017, Newfoundland and Labrador generated 39.2 terawatt hours (TW.h) of electricity (Figure 2), which is approximately 7% of total Canadian generation. Newfoundland and Labrador is the 5th largest producer of electricity in Canada and has a generating capacity of 7 717 megawatts (MW).
- Newfoundland and Labrador generates 93% of its electricity from hydro sources (Figure 3). This includes the 5 428 MW Upper Churchill Falls generating station, which is one of the largest power plants in Canada. Energy from Upper Churchill Falls is sold to Hydro-Québec under a long-term contract that expires in 2041.
- The Lower Churchill Falls project consists of Muskrat Falls and Gull Island. At the end of 2017, construction of the 824 MW Muskrat Falls generating facility was 78 per cent complete. First power is expected in late 2019, with full power by autumn 2020. The Gull Island project would consist of a 2 250 MW generation facility that would follow no earlier than three years after the completion of Muskrat Falls.
- After hydroelectricity, oil is the largest contributor to Newfoundland and Labrador’s power generation, primarily from the 500 MW Holyrood Thermal Generating Station near Conception Bay South. Natural gas and wind power also contribute a small proportion to the generation mix.
- Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro is a subsidiary of Nalcor Energy and is responsible for most generation and transmission. Newfoundland Power, a subsidiary of Fortis Inc., is the primary distributor of electricity. Independent power producers operate the area’s few wind farms.
Energy Transportation and Trade
Crude Oil and Liquids
- There are no crude oil pipelines or crude-by-rail facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador. All of its offshore crude oil production is transported to refineries by ship.
- Production from the Terra Nova and Hibernia oil fields is transported by shuttle tankers to the terminal near Arnold’s Cove, where it is then loaded onto ships destined for domestic and export markets. Production from the White Rose floating production facility is loaded directly onto tankers travelling to domestic and international destinations (Figure 4).
- There are no natural gas pipelines in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
- There are no current or proposed LNG facilities in Newfoundland and Labrador.
- Newfoundland and Labrador is a significant net exporter of electricity. In 2017, net interprovincial and international electricity outflows accounted for 28.4 TW.h, or about 67% of generation.
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s transmission system has three networks. The two largest are the Island Interconnected System, which is isolated from the rest of North America, and the Labrador Interconnected System, which attaches to Quebec’s infrastructure.
- For the first time in history, the island of Newfoundland is connected to the North American power grid through the construction of the Labrador-Island Link and the Maritime Link. The Labrador-Island Link was completed in late 2017, and delivers electricity from Muskrat Falls in Labrador to the island. The Maritime Link was also completed in late 2017 and placed in service in January 2018. The subsea cables connect the island of Newfoundland with Nova Scotia and allow access to the North American bulk electric system.
- The third network consists of isolated systems serving 21 communities and approximately 3 400 customers. These isolated systems are primarily supported by diesel generation, though some have access to wind-generated electricity.
Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions
Total Energy Consumption
- End-use demand in Newfoundland and Labrador was 166 petajoules (PJ) in 2016. The largest sector for energy demand was industrial at 40% of total demand, followed by transportation at 38%, residential at 15%, and commercial at 7% (Figure 5). Newfoundland and Labrador’s total energy demand was the 8th largest in Canada, and the 4th largest on a per capita basis.
- Refined petroleum products were the largest fuel type consumed in Newfoundland and Labrador, accounting for 102 PJ, or 62%. Electricity and natural gas accounted for 37 PJ (22%) and 20 PJ (12%), respectively (Figure 6).
Refined Petroleum Products
- Gasoline in Newfoundland and Labrador is primarily refined within the province at the North Atlantic Refinery. A small amount is transferred from the Irving refinery in New Brunswick.
- Total 2017 demand for RPPs in Newfoundland and Labrador was estimated at 50 Mb/d, or 2% of total Canadian RPP demand. Of Newfoundland and Labrador’s total demand, an estimated 19 Mb/d was for motor gasoline.
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s per capita RPP consumption in 2017 was 5 502 litres (34.6 barrels), or 91% above the national average of 2 886 litres per capita.
- RPP prices have been regulated by the Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities since 2007. The Board sets maximum retail prices for heating oil, gasoline, and diesel using spot market pricing and adding wholesale and retail margins, transportation costs, and taxes. Prices are revised every two weeks or as required to adjust for market conditions.
- None of the natural gas produced at offshore oil facilities is sold. The natural gas is used to power the offshore facilities, reinjected into the ground to maintain reservoir pressure, or flared.
- In 2016, annual electricity consumption per capita in Newfoundland and Labrador was 19.7 megawatt hours (MW.h). Newfoundland and Labrador ranked 3rd in Canada for per capita electricity consumption and consumed 32% more than the national average.
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s largest consuming sector for electricity in 2016 was residential at 4.3 TW.h. The industrial and commercial sectors consumed 3.5 TW.h and 2.5 TW.h, respectively. Newfoundland and Labrador’s electricity demand has decreased 5% since 2005.
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s GHG emissions in 2016 were 10.8 megatonnes (MT) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).Footnote 1 Newfoundland and Labrador’s emissions have increased 16% since 1990.
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s emissions per capita are 20.3 tonnes CO2e per capita – 4% above the Canadian average of 19.4 tonnes per capita.
- The largest emitting sectors in Newfoundland and Labrador are transportation at 36% of emissions, oil and gas production at 25%, and electricity generation at 14% (Figure 7).
- Newfoundland and Labrador’s GHG emissions from the oil and gas sector in 2016 were 2.7 MT CO2e. Of this total, 1.6 MT were attributable to offshore oil production and 1.1 MT were attributable to petroleum refining.
- In 2016, Newfoundland and Labrador’s power sector emitted 1.5 MT CO2e emissions, which represents about 2% of Canada’s GHG emissions from power generation.
- Canada-Newfoundland & Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board
- Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources
- Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Finance – Oil Economic Bulletin
- Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities – Current Regulated Fuel Prices
- NEB – Market Snapshot: Understanding the Regulation of Gasoline Prices in Atlantic Canada
- NEB – Market Snapshot: 25 years of Atlantic Canada offshore oil & natural gas production
- NEB – Market Snapshot: Newfoundland joins the interconnected North American electricity grid
- NEB – Market Snapshot: Household energy expenditures highest in the Atlantic region, lowest in British Columbia
- NEB – Market Snapshot: Canadian crude oil imports from the U.S. decline in 2016, overseas imports increase
- NEB – Market Snapshot: Understanding the regulation of gasoline prices in Atlantic Canada
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